Periodontology

Specialist branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the tooth support device. Today, in addition to caries, periodontal disease (periodontitis) is considered to be the most widespread disease of the human species. The main cause of tooth loss in the 45-year-olds. Part of the problem lies in the fact that the symptoms of this disease are quite mild. Mostly no pain, and the occasional bleeding of the gums most people do not take seriously. It is only when the disease arrives to the terminal stage, in which the teeth rush and fall out, the patients seek help. Then, unfortunately, it's too late for a successful therapy.


To prevent such an event, it is necessary to react on time, so if you notice any symptom of gum disease, set aside time for yourself and schedule a check-up immediately:


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Periodontopathy causes dental plaque, nasal deposits where more than 80% are bacteria and cannot be eliminated by rinsing. In cases of insufficient or inadequate oral hygiene, mineral salts are deposited in the tooth plaque so that a dental stone is formed along the gingiva edge. Dental stone causes gingivitis (inflammation of the gum) because it prevents cleaning and self-cleaning, and second, by pressing the gums it disturbs the circulation. Gingivitis is the first phase of periodontal disease, it is an inflammation of gums, and it is manifested by the edema, redness, and bleeding of the gums, and later a bad breath appears. If gingivitis is not treated, further inflammation extends to bone and periodontium (fibers that bind tooth bone). Periodontal pockets, spaces between teeth, bones and gums are formed. In time, there is a withdrawal of the gums, a gap between the teeth appears and a difficult, painful chewing occurs. Not only do the teeth begin to swing and come out, but periodontal pockets are also focuses which can affect the distant tissues and organs (focal infections), primarily the heart valves, joints and the brain.


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In addition to dental plaque, periodontitis is also facilitated by smoking, diabetes, orthodontic abnormalities, dental defects, etc. Periodontal disease cannot be completely cured, but by professional treatment it can be stopped and put under control. Therapy in the initial phase of gingivitis includes the removal of dental calculus and soft deposits, as well as the education and motivation of the patient in maintaining oral hygiene. If pockets are already present, depending on their depth and localization, there are two types of therapy:


  • Conservative treatment (cleaning of pockets) - after removing dental stone and under the influence of local anesthesia with curettes, pathologically altered tissue of the periodontium is removed. The result of cure is to reduce the depth of the periodontal pockets and to create a new soft tissue attachment.
  • Surgical treatment is applied if the pockets are too deep to access with the instruments. MWRO, known as the "slit of surgery," is performed by gums exiting to fully access the periodontal pocket. If periodontitis causes severe bone destruction and deep bone pockets, the defects are compensated by the bone substitute in combination with PRF, Emdogain or membranes.

The last stage in the treatment of all stages of periodontitis is the maintenance of the results achieved. During regular controls, the periodontologist measures the depth of the periodontal pockets and compares them with the results obtained at the end of the therapy. Based on this, possibly, one of the conservative treatment methods is repeated.